Who was Noah?

Noach ben Ploughshare (נח; 1056-2006 gg / 2704-1754 BC /..) - an outstanding righteous, one of the pioneers of mankind.

Tenth generation from Adam - Enoch's great-grandson and grandson Metushelaha. His mother Eshmoa daughter Elishua, the son of Enoch, was married to the coulter in 1055/2705 BC / (Sefer ayashar; Seder adorot).

Birth and childhood

Born in 1056, when his father Lamech was 182 years old (Genesis 5:28). Born without foreskin - "clipped" (Nathan Avoth derabi 2: 5; comrade Shoher 9).

Metushelah called his name Noah, and his father gave him an additional name Menachem, saying: "This will bring us comfort (yenahmeynu)" (Genesis 5:29; Sefer ayashar; Yalkut Shimoni, Genesis 42).

He studied with his grandfather Metushelaha, who was the ruler of all mankind (the Seder adorot).

sinful generation

At that time, the history of many of the inhabitants of the earth have perverted their way, no longer follow the counsel of the wise Metushelaha. According to the Torah, moral corruption began with the fact that "the sons of the nobles took ... confident women, all who chose" (Genesis 6: 2, Rashi). "Any breach begins with generation of leaders", and then the sons of kings and nobles began to force myself to pick up other people's wives. They played the harlot also with men and with cattle (Bereshit Rabba 26: 5, Maarzo) - wicked "crossbred cattle from wild animals and animals with their cattle, and all the animals with people, and people with all the animals" (Sanhedrin 108a). Many women in that generation went by opening his own flesh and tint your eyes, like harlots, and the men were defiled by all kinds of debauchery - openly and on the street, even entering into relationship with their mothers and daughters (Pirkei derabi Eliezer 22). And especially rampaged the ones who have been called to enforce the law - and there was nobody to stop them (Ramban, Genesis 6: 2).

For many years, Noah lived in seclusion in an effort to protect themselves from the influence of the wicked of his generation. He intently studied the books of Adam and Enoch to have known the way of service to the Creator (Zohar 1, 58b), - and in the Torah it states that "Noah earned affection in the eyes of the Lord" (Bereshit6: 8).

Prophecies about the flood

In 1536/2224 BC / Noah won the prophecy: the Almighty revealed to him that, if mankind does not repent of his crimes and not return to a righteous way of life, that after 120 years, it will be destroyed by the waters of the flood (Genesis 6 3, Rasi; Sefer ayashar). After all, the Creator "has never accomplishes in the world court as long as not declare about it and did not notify the defendants," as he "notified the generation of the flood by Noah" (Zohar 1, 58a).

Day after day, Noah and his grandfather Metushelah, who also received a similar prophecy, urged his contemporaries to repent, but they did not listen (Sefer ayashar). Noah said: "Take a repentance! Otherwise, the Creator lead you flood your body and float on water, as the leather bellows! " (Sanhedrin 108a Rasi). He has performed in front of crowds of people, but one felt that angry students conspired to kill him. And then he fled in terror from the populated areas (Seder adorot).

That same year, the Almighty commanded Noah to build a big ship - the ark, in which he can be saved in the day of worldwide catastrophe (Genesis 6:14, Rashi; Seder adorot). Noach immediately planted seedlings cedars, said him form (gopher) so that, when they grow and build one ark shell, which was, according to the command Gd, reach three hundred elbows (approx. 150 m.) In length and fifty (ca. .. 25 m) - at the height (Genesis 6: 14-15; slave Genesis 30: 7, Radal; Otzar Ishey Atan, Noach).

Marriage and childbearing

In 1554/2206 BC /, at the age of 498 years, Noah, following the direct command of the Almighty, married Naamah, the daughter of Enoch and the righteous sister Metushelaha, which by that time was already 580 years old (Sefer ayashar; Seder adorot) . According to another version, Naama descendant of Cain (Bereshit Rabba 23: 3; Rashi, Bereishit 4:22).

In 1556/2204 BC / Noah was born at the first-born son Yefet, in 1557 the second son - Ham, and a year later - the third, Shem (Bereshit5 32, Rashi, Sanhedrin 69b; Seder adorot).

The construction of the ark

Kavcheg, Chapter Noah

The ark

When the mighty cedars grew, people began to ask Noah for what he planted them. And he explained that God intends to destroy the earth flood, and in order to be saved, it must be made of these cedars ark. But everyone laughed at him (Tanchuma, Noah 5).

In 1604/2156 BC / Noah started building the ark housing (Pirkei derabi Eliezer 23).

In 1651/2109 BC / Noah's father died - Ploughshare, and in the same year passed away last righteous people of his generation. Of all those who serve the Creator, leaving only the family of Noah and his grandfather Metushelah.

In the same year Noah proceeded to the finishing of the ark, and the work went on for five years.

Again and again he warned the people of impending disaster, but he was not listened to and said: "If the fall and the flood and pestilence, the only family of this man." Indeed, in a short time his father died Ploughshare, and a host of other decent people. Noah strongly dishonored and shamed - in that generation it was called bizaya Sava (disgraced old man) (Bereshit Rabba 30: 7; Sanhedrin 108b).

"Come thou and all thy family into the ark"

Noah's ark

At the beginning of 1656/2104 BC /, when work on the ark was finally finished, Noah took his sons wives - three daughters Elyakima son Metushelaha (Sefer ayashar; Seder adorot). Shortly after the wedding, 11 Cheshvan 1656, died Metushelah, and within seven days of Noah and his family were in mourning.

But back in the day of death Metushelaha Noah again won the prophecy, and the Almighty said to him, "Come thou and all thy family into the ark, for thee have I seen righteous before Me in this generation" (Genesis 7: 1; Seder adorot).

For which he was convicted?

The Talmud states that, although the generation of the flood transgressed all possible bans, their verdict was sealed by it for robbery (Sanhedrin 108a). In the Torah itself the basic crime of this generation called word hamas (robbery; see Genesis 6:13.), And commentators explain that the concept of Hamas also includes the theft of small things, in which it is impossible to apply to the court for justice. It is this type of crime was especially prevalent in the generation before the flood: the "robbery" (Hamas) will be performed openly, in broad daylight, by common consent (Bereshit Rabba 31: 5, Nehmad lemare). By definition, p. Ovadia Seforno, robbery received a total character, and people no longer see him as evil: for "all steal from each other" (Seforno, Genesis 6:13). And the author of Ohr ahaimdobavlyaet: "In every generation, flood stole what he could ... and if the situation was such that it was impossible to rob or steal, they resorted to fraud and deception" (Op Hachaim, Genesis 6:13).

However, according to the broader definition hamas concept includes not only the robbery, but also "all kinds abominations" (Maarzo, slave Genesis 31: 1) - including idolatry, blood and corruption. According to Midrash, the inhabitants of the earth literally "wallowed in debauchery" and "debauchery (znut) inevitably leads to the civilization of the universal destruction" (Bereshit Rabba 26: 5, 31: 6). And yet, "the generation of the flood was not wiped off the face of the earth as long as they did not make the marriage contract between a man and between people and cattle" (Bereshit Rabba 26: 5; Rashi, Hulin 23a, "Ki ishhit"). And because the people of that generation not merely by once again succumbed to their passions, but corruption has gained them the force of law - repentance was nearly impossible (Maarzo servant Genesis 26: 5).

The Talmud says that "the sentence was imposed in respect of Noah" - in fact, since the world is judged by the majority, and most of his contemporaries were wicked, judgment extended to the whole of humanity (Sanhedrin 108a Yad frame and Maarsha) - but he his family were pardoned (Sanhedrin 108a Yad frame and Maarsha). Although the Torah says: "Noah - a righteous man" (Genesis 6: 9) and "Thee I have seen righteous in this generation" (ibid 7: 1) Nevertheless, his righteousness was not enough to defend against his death contemporary (Zohar 1, 67b-68a). And, according to some sages of the Talmud, Noah was "a righteous man" is in his generation: in comparison with the surrounding finished wicked. But others believe that if Noah managed to stay among the just finished the wicked, then even more so, he would become a great saint in the other, not so spoiled generation (Sanhedrin 108a; Rashi, Genesis 6: 9; 1 Zohar, 67b). Anyway, he was saved from the flood waters is not for their own merits, but because of it in the future should happen Moshe (cm.), Through which the Jewish people will be given the Torah (Bereshit Rabba 26: 6).

deluge Start

Following the direct command of the Almighty, Noah laid the ark large stocks of food for his family, as well as those of animals and birds, which had in it to collect: cakes of pressed figs - for people cuttings of vines - for elephants, hay - for deer and etc. Furthermore, he introduced into the ark seedlings of fruit plants, to plant them after the flood (ibid 31:14, 36: 3).

On the seventeenth day of the month of Cheshvan 1656/2104 BC / Noah and his family entered the ark, and after them, obeying the silent order of the Creator, in the ark, gathered the pair of all the animals and birds destined for salvation (Genesis 7 : 7-11, 13-16; Seder slave olam 4).

On that day, all over the earth a heavy rain, and the water has risen significantly, flooding low places. Terrified people ran to the ark of Noah, and eventually there were about seven hundred thousand people. They demanded: "Reveal to us the ark, and we shall be saved by you. Why do we have to die ?! " "All of you have rebelled against the Creator and claimed that He does not exist, - he reminded them of Noah. - And now he pays you for your evil, sweeping you off the earth. Now comes what I told you in a hundred and twenty years - but you did not listen. And now you want to survive on earth ?! ". And the people said to Noah, "Now we repent and return to the Creator. It reveals to us the ark, so that we are not dead! " "Only now, seeing the face of disaster, you are willing to repent - they said Noah. - Why did not you return to the Almighty for the one hundred and twenty years, that He has given you for repentance. And on this day, Gd will not listen to you, and your words will not help today. " And then people rushed to force open the ark and disposing of Noah, to hide from the oncoming water. However, the Creator sent down on them wild beasts, who also tried to escape from the ark from the flood waters. Predators devoured people and those scattered in different directions (Sefer ayashar; Tanchuma, Noach 7; Yalqut Shimeoni 57).

During the forty days of rain intensified. By pouring joined to the surface of underground streams, and "Ark floated on the water" (Genesis 7:18). The waters rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains - and "died all flesh: ... both man and animal, to creeping things, and to the birds of the heaven ... and was left (alive) only Noah and those who were with him in the ark" (ibid also 7: 20-23).

All these days the storm threw the ark, like a chip, threatening to break it. Animals howling and growling in their compartments, and Noah and his sons were in awe and fear of the Creator prayed for deliverance from death (Seder adorot).

cessation of rains

Forty days later, on 27 Kislev 1656, the rain stopped, but only after five months of water soaking into the ground, began to fall slowly. Seventeenth Sivan "Ark dropped ... the mountains of Ararat" (Genesis 7:12, 24, 8: 3-4, Rashi, the Seder Olam slave 4). All the days and nights spent in the ark, Noah and his family, not knowing rest, care for animals and fed them, because some animals are fed only during the day, while others - that night. Once Noah was late with feeding a lion, and a furious beast seriously hurt his leg (Tanchuma, Noah 9).

Out ark

On the first day of the month of Av, the tenth month from the beginning of the flood, Window ark "became visible mountain tops" (Genesis 8: 5, Rasi; Seder slave olam 4). Two months later, on the first day of the month of Tishrei of the new, 1657, "Noah removed the cover from the ark and saw that the surface of the earth beginning to dry" (Genesis 8:13). And, finally, left the ark on the 27th day of the month of Cheshvan, through a full solar year from the beginning of the flood, Noah and his family (ibid 8: 14-18, Rashi, the Seder Olam slave 4).

When Noah came out of the ark and saw the destroyed water world, he, sobbing, God rebuked: "You, who was called the Merciful, had pity on His creatures!" "Crazy Shepherd - retorted Gd - now you tell me about this ?! Why are you silent when I warned you about the flood? After I called you "righteous" it is for you to ask for mercy for all mankind. But you have heard that you will be saved in the ark, and did not ask for the other - and built an ark and was saved! And now you accuse me ?! " (Zohar chadash, Noach 23a). And since Noah, having received a prophecy that the Creator will destroy mankind, not even asking for a pardon, the Almighty calls exterminating water flood "waters of Noah" (Yeshayahu 54: 9) - as if it was Noah flooded the world (Zohar 1, 67b) .

Descending from the mountains of Ararat, Noah and his family have traveled in a southwest direction, reaching the country in which they lived and were buried the first people - Adam and Eve. In the days of the flood only on this ground was not wet, and there escaped to the surface of a powerful underground water. And although the land flooded water penetrated from the surrounding countries, yet there survived trees. In all the rest of the world not only the trees were broken and uprooted - but even stone millstones were broken up flood (Pirkei derabi Eliezer23; Leviticus 31:10 slave, Ramban, Bereishit 8:11).

Creator alliance with Noah and subsequent years

On Mount Moriah found the remains of Noah Adam folded the altar. He restored the altar, and his son Shem lifted the Creator numerous burnt offering. Son replaced him as a kohen (priest), Noah because he was then unfit to serve at the altar because of his physical defect (baal MUM) have not yet healed the wounds inflicted by a lion during a stay in the ark (Genesis 8:20 ; slave Genesis 30: 6, 34: 9; Zohar chadash 22b). Accepting the sacrifice, the Almighty blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth" (Genesis 9: 1). And he made with Noah Union, according to which humanity will never again be subjected to total destruction of "waters of the flood" (ibid 9:11).

After the flood, Noah and his descendants were permitted not only plant, but also meat diet. Therefore, the six commands, data Adam, was added Seven: prohibition eat meat, isolated from another living animal (Everian Achaea min) (ibid 9: 3-4; Rambam Melachim 9: 1).

In the following years, Noah lived in the country, which later became known as "Italy". There he devoted his time to comprehend the wisdom (Seder adorot). In particular, he compiled a book on medicine, which includes healing techniques and recipes of medicinal potions, he received from the angel Raphael (Otzar ishey Atan, Noah).

tower of Babel

Descendants three sons Noach together colonized large valley between the Tigris Shinar (Khidekel) and Euphrates (Genesis 11: 2). In 1788godu / 1972 BC / reigned over them the great-grandson of Noah, Nimrod, and in 1791/1969 BC / they began to build in the valley town, later called Bavel (Babylon), and in it - high-rise tower (Genesis 11: 4; Sefer ayashar, Noach; Seder adorot).

All this generation leave the ministry to the Creator of the world, people worshiped the various forces of nature embodied in sculptures of wood or stone (Sefer ayashar, Noah). Only four pious people moved away from the whole of humanity, retaining the belief in one Creator, - and it was Noah, his son Shem, the great-grandson of Shem - Ever (cm.) And a descendant of Avery Abraham (see Abraham.) (Otzar ishey Atan, Shem). From 1958 to 1997 / from 1802 to 1763 BC / Abram lived and studied in the house of Noah (Sefer ayashar, Noah; Seder adorot).

In 1996/1764 BC / descendants of Noah were forced to stop construction of the Tower of Babel, and the Almighty scattered them all over the earth (Genesis 11: 8-9). From them there were seventy basic nations 14 - from Japheth, 30 - from Ham, and 26 people - from Shem (Bereshit10: 1-32; Seder Olam slave 1; Seder adorot). Before his death, Noah divided the land between his three sons, and the country in which is Mount Moriah, was given to his youngest son Shem (Rashi, Bereishit 12: 6, CIFTA chachamim; Otzar ishey Atan, Shem). The Midrash Noah named one of the three saints who laid the "foundation of peace": Adam, Noah and Abraham (Shoher comrade 34: 1).

death of Noah

Noah died in 2006/1754 BC / at the age of 950 years (Genesis 9:29; Seder adorot).

Compiled them Book of Healing (Sefer refuot) moved for safekeeping to his son Shem (Otzar ishey Atan, Shem). According to some commentators, this book used in the Land of Israel has in the First Temple era, but then at the command of the king Hezekiah it was withdrawn from use because people are so relied on the remedies specified in it, in case of illness did not ask the Creator for support and healing (Pesachim 56a, Rasi; Seder adorot).

The remains of the ark

According to numerous reports, the remains of Noah's ark survived. Almighty has saved them to remain on the earth evidence of the Flood (Yalkut Shimoni, Beshalach 256). The historical chronicle Seder adorot stated that "Mount Ararat", referred to in the Torah verse, are the top four, with the two pairs. Mountain range, which fell at the end of the ark of the flood, was called in antiquity Cadron and the largest mountain - Carden and Armenia. Not far from them was the capital city of Armenia (Targum Yonatan, Genesis 8: 4). For generations, people have used the remains of the Ark as a remedy (Seder adorot). The Talmud explains that Assyrian king Sancheriv, posed as an idol worship one timber, broken off from the ark and brought to his palace (Sanhedrin 96a). Son of the first minister of Persia, Haman, Parshandata, was the governor of the country's Cardenio (Armenia), and it was he who brought the royal capital of Persia, Shushan (Susa) beam from the ark of Noah, reaching a length of 50 cubits (approx. 25 meters). In this column Haman planned to hang his chief enemy, the Jewish sage Mordechai - and later on it was strung himself Haman (Esther 7: 9-10, Yalkut Shimoni, Beshalach 256). And the Babylonian historian Berusus testified that "part of the ship of Noah is still in Armenia, at the mount of Cardenio." In our time the ship remnants have seen a number of researchers, as well as pilots, flying over the mountains of Ararat, and photos were taken (Emet meerets titsmah 2, pp. 60-62).